In Buddhism, the 5 hinderances impede or get in the way of forward progress in meditation and life. They are obstacles that challenge you. It’s important to pay attention to what is happening when you feel their challenge. By identifying the hindrances, you can get a better sense of what caused them to arise. Then figure out how to overcome them.
First principles thinking allows you to think clearly and think for yourself. By definition, a first principle is a basic thought that cannot be reduced further. You can learn how to incorporate this into your thinking tool kit and I will show you three ways to start. In my (current) opinion, on the journey to “think better, do better, be better” understanding reasoning from first principles is step number one.